Procedure text is a type of text that explains how to do or make something in a step-by-step manner. It is a practical text that provides instructions on how to perform a task or complete a process, and it is commonly used in manuals, instructions, and recipes.
Procedure text typically starts with a goal or objective, and then breaks down the process into a series of steps that are easy to follow. The steps are usually presented in a chronological order, and each step is explained in detail, including any necessary materials or tools needed, precautions to take, and specific actions to perform.
Examples of procedure text include cooking recipes, how-to guides for assembling furniture or electronics, instructions for using a new software program, or directions for repairing a machine.
In order to create effective procedure text, it is important to use clear and concise language, include relevant details and information, and organize the steps in a logical and easy-to-follow sequence. Diagrams, illustrations, or photographs can also be helpful to illustrate the steps or clarify complex procedures.
To write effective procedure texts, it is important to have a good understanding of grammar, particularly sentence structure and the use of imperatives. Imperatives are verbs used to give commands or instructions, and they are commonly used in procedure text.
Some key grammar points to master when learning procedure text include:
Use of imperatives: Imperatives are used to give instructions, so it is important to use them correctly and appropriately. Imperatives are formed using the base form of the verb (e.g. “Mix the ingredients together”).
Simple present tense: Procedure text is typically written in the simple present tense, which is used to describe actions that are happening now or are always true. For example, “Add the sugar to the mixture” rather than “Added the sugar to the mixture”.
Active voice: Procedure text should be written in the active voice, which is more direct and easier to follow. For example, “Mix the ingredients” rather than “The ingredients should be mixed”.
Transitional words: Transitional words and phrases, such as “next”, “then”, “after that”, and “finally”, are important to indicate the sequence of steps in a procedure.
Conjunctions: Conjunctions such as “and” and “or” are also important to connect ideas and clarify the steps in a procedure.
Imperatives are verbs that are used to give commands, instructions, or orders. They are commonly used in procedure text, as well as in other types of instructional or directive writing. Imperatives are used to give direct and clear instructions, and are often written in the second person (you).
For example, in a recipe, imperatives might be used to give instructions such as “preheat the oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit” or “mix the ingredients together in a bowl.” Imperatives are also commonly used in safety instructions, such as “wear safety goggles when using power tools” or “keep hands and feet away from moving parts.”
There are different types of imperatives, including affirmative and negative imperatives. Affirmative imperatives are used to tell someone to do something, while negative imperatives are used to tell someone not to do something.
Here are some examples of affirmative and negative imperatives:
- Stir the mixture gently.
- Open the package carefully.
- Press the button to start the machine.
- Don’t touch the hot stove.
- Don’t forget to wear a seatbelt.
- Don’t mix these two chemicals together.
When using imperatives, it is important to keep the language clear and direct. Use short, simple sentences and avoid using unnecessary words or phrases. Additionally, it is important to use appropriate tone and language for the context, and to consider the audience when giving instructions.
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
The simple present tense is a verb tense used to describe actions that are habitual, factual, or are generally true. It is commonly used in procedure text because it helps to make the instructions more clear and easier to understand. When writing in the simple present tense, the verb form does not change with the subject.
Here are some examples of sentences written in the simple present tense:
- “First, pour the milk into the bowl.”
- “Next, add the flour to the mixture.”
- “Stir the ingredients until they are fully combined.”
In addition to describing habitual or factual actions, the simple present tense can also be used to describe scheduled future events or to make general statements about the present.
- “The train leaves at 10am tomorrow.”
- “Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.”
- “I go to the gym every Monday.”
When writing procedure text, it is important to use the simple present tense consistently throughout the text to maintain clarity and consistency. This helps the reader to easily follow along and understand the steps involved in the process.
It’s worth noting that the simple present tense can also be used with verbs that describe states or conditions that are ongoing, such as “like”, “dislike”, “want”, or “need”. For example, “I like chocolate” or “She needs a new phone.”
Overall, the simple present tense is an important grammar point to master when learning and writing procedure text. It helps to convey information in a clear and straightforward way and is commonly used in a variety of contexts.
Active voice is a grammatical construction where the subject of the sentence is performing the action described by the verb. In contrast, passive voice is a construction where the subject of the sentence is receiving the action described by the verb.
Here’s an example to illustrate the difference between active and passive voice:
Active voice: “The teacher graded the papers.” Passive voice: “The papers were graded by the teacher.”
In the active voice sentence, “the teacher” is the subject of the sentence and is performing the action of grading the papers. In the passive voice sentence, “the papers” are the subject of the sentence and are receiving the action of being graded by the teacher.
In procedure text, it is generally recommended to use active voice because it is more direct and easier to understand. Active voice emphasizes the person or thing doing the action, making it clear who is responsible for each step in the process.
Here’s an example of a sentence in passive voice: “The mixture should be stirred for five minutes.”
Here’s the same sentence in active voice: “You should stir the mixture for five minutes.”
Notice how the active voice sentence is more direct and puts the responsibility for stirring the mixture on the reader or whoever is following the procedure.
In general, it’s a good idea to use active voice whenever possible in procedure text to make the instructions clearer and more concise.
Example of active voice:
Active voice: The chef prepares the ingredients by chopping the vegetables and seasoning the meat.
Active voice: You should add the water slowly to the mixture while stirring continuously.
Active voice: The technician will install the new software on your computer.
Transitional words, also known as transition words or signal words, are words or phrases that help to connect ideas and sentences together. They are used to show the relationships between ideas, and to help the reader follow the flow of the text. In procedure text, transitional words can be used to signal the order of the steps, to show cause-and-effect relationships, and to emphasize important points.
Here are some examples of transitional words and phrases that are commonly used in procedure text:
- First, next, then, finally – these words are used to signal the order of the steps.
Example: “First, preheat the oven to 350°F. Next, prepare the ingredients. Then, mix the ingredients together. Finally, bake for 30 minutes.”
- In addition, furthermore, moreover – these words are used to add more information or to emphasize a point.
Example: “In addition to flour, you will need sugar and butter. Furthermore, make sure all ingredients are at room temperature. Moreover, mixing the ingredients thoroughly will yield a better result.”
- However, on the other hand – these words are used to show contrast or to present a different point of view.
Example: “Baking can be a fun activity. However, it can also be time-consuming. On the other hand, the satisfaction of seeing the finished product can make it all worth it.”
- Therefore, thus, as a result – these words are used to show cause-and-effect relationships.
Example: “If you mix the ingredients too quickly, the batter will be lumpy. Therefore, take your time and mix the ingredients slowly. Thus, you will get a smooth batter. As a result, your final product will turn out better.”
By using transitional words, you can help to make your procedure text more clear and easy to understand. These words can help the reader to follow the order of the steps, understand the relationships between ideas, and see the bigger picture of the entire process.
In grammar, conjunctions are words that are used to connect words, phrases, or clauses. They are used to join two or more ideas together, and to show the relationships between those ideas. There are two main types of conjunctions: coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.
- Coordinating conjunctions: These are conjunctions that are used to join two or more independent clauses (sentences that can stand alone as complete sentences) together. The most common coordinating conjunctions are:
- and: used to connect similar or related ideas
- or: used to present a choice or alternative
- but: used to present a contrast or exception
- so: used to show a result or consequence
- for: used to explain a reason or purpose
- yet: used to present a contrast or surprising result
Example: “I wanted to bake a cake, but I didn’t have any eggs. So, I went to the grocery store and bought some. Yet, when I got home, I realized that I also needed flour.”
- Subordinating conjunctions: These are conjunctions that are used to join a dependent clause (a clause that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence) to an independent clause. The most common subordinating conjunctions are:
- because: used to show a reason or cause
- if: used to show a condition or possibility
- although: used to show a contrast or concession
- when: used to show a time relationship
- since: used to show a reason or time relationship
- while: used to show a time or contrast relationship
Example: “I decided to bake a cake because I had some free time. Although I didn’t have all of the ingredients, I decided to try anyway. When the cake was finished, it smelled delicious.”
By using conjunctions, you can help to connect ideas and make your writing more cohesive and understandable. Coordinating conjunctions are useful for connecting independent clauses and showing relationships between ideas of equal importance. Subordinating conjunctions are useful for showing relationships between ideas of unequal importance, and for creating more complex sentences.